Stephen joined Qalaa Holdings in 2008. Prior to joining the firm, Mr. Murphy was head of private placements at Citigroup Global Markets. With more than 20 years of experience in private equity fundraising and investment banking, Mr. Murphy held a range of positions with Salomon Brothers / Salomon Smith Barney in New York, Tokyo and London starting in 1985. Originally a mergers and acquisitions specialist who headed Salomon’s European M&A practice in the early 1990s, Mr. Murphy’s career has covered a wide range of advisory as well as public and private fundraising activities. He executed Salomon’s first lead-managed IPO in Europe and has handled yankee and convertible bond funding and private placements for both general partners and private companies. Before re-joining Citigroup in 2001, he held the post of Managing Director of E*Trade International Capital, where he was, among other things, responsible for setting up the company’s online distribution of equity offerings via its web portal.